|T06. Regional Archaeologies in the Globalized World
|The development of archaeology in the last few decades has expanded the discipline toward unprecedented frontiers. At the same time, the process of globalization creates new ways of interaction and original and fast mechanism for disseminating information. This new scenario has produced a novel relationship between the local archaeologies, which are also growing fast and in a dendrite mode, with the global archaeological subject (such as the domestication process, the technological innovation, the mechanism of migration, the emergence of social hierarchies, the people-things entanglement, etc.). In this context, it is not always clear how close and detailed local archaeologies can contribute to come up to the somewhat distant global and broader issues. This gap in the different scales could be waived by the means of the regional dimension, which creates an adequate platform to approach the globalized issues in the archaeological agenda.
This theme proposes to set the context where the regional scales can contribute to discuss global archaeological issues. These issues could be approached regionally or thematically (where the subject is the axis, and the region is the scale). Potential regions and themes includes:
- How the archaeology of Africa is contributing to global archaeology issues?
- How the archaeology of North America is contributing to global archaeology issues?
- How the archaeology of South America is contributing to global archaeology issues?
- How the archaeology of Europe is contributing to global archaeology issues?
- How the archaeology of Eastern Asia is contributing to global archaeology issues?
- How the archaeology of Western Asia is contributing to global archaeology issues?
- How the archaeology of Oceania is contributing to global archaeology issues?
- The process of plant and animal domestication in a global context
- Technological innovations: where, how and when?
- The emergence and growth of social inequality
- Ethnogenesis and adaptation from a global perspective
- Representation and style
- Ethnic identity and material culture
Adaptability and Resilience: New Paradigms for the Indus Civilization
Organiser(s): Carla Lancelotti (Universitat Pompeu Fabra / Spain), Cameron A. Petrie (University of Cambridge / UK) and Marco Madella (Universitat Pompeu Fabra / Spain)
The Greater Indus Valley was home to one of the greatest early complex societies, comparable to those that flourished in Mesopotamia, Egypt and China. Interpretations on its rise and fall,
as well as its cultural traits and social organization, have often drawn upon model developed for these other cultures. The largely indiscriminate application of these models to the Indus Civilization has meant that discussions on adaptation and resilience never played a key role.
Recent international research has, however, showed that the Indus Civilization is uniquely placed to shed light on processes of human adaptation and resilience. Indeed, this civilization occupied several different ecological niches and withstood major climatic shifts and changes in water regimes, offering an unparalleled example of human response to both ecological diversity and environmental change. This session aims at discussing new paradigms for the Indus Civilization and, more in general, at showcasing how the recent work in this area can be conducive to the creation of more general models of human adaptability and resilience.
Keywords: Indus Civilization, Adaptability, Resilience
Applications of flaked stone analyses in South America
Organiser(s): Bruce Bradley (University of Exeter / UK) and Mercedes Okumura (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro / Brazil)
Flaked stone artifacts remain a fundamental archaeological analytical category used to interpret and reconstruct ancient lifeways, social and economic interactions and technological
adaptations. Recent applications of analytical methodologies, including geometric morphometrics and experimental archaeology, and recent original results indicate that some South American societies did not develop in the same linear way as seen in many North American societies. This is especially the case for some of the earliest known hunter/gatherer assemblages. South American archaeological cultures also serve as a test cases for examining some of the standard understandings of social and technological developments, such as the origin of State societies. These approaches and results have implications for studies in other regions of the world. This session explores some of the latest developments and results of South American flaked stone research.
Keywords: flaked stone, technology, morphology
Caribbean Archaeology in the Globalized World
Organiser(s): Mirjana Roksandic (University of Winnipeg / Canada), Ivan Roksandic (University of Winnipeg / Canada) and Basil Reid (University of the West Indies / Trinidad and Tobago)
Over the last 30 years, Caribbean archaeology has grown to the point where it is no longer just contributing, but also leading the debate on critical issues in archaeology such as colonization, migration, seafaring, identity, subsistence, and human-landscape-climate interaction. The region’s position at the crossroads, posing questions which transcend the boundaries of academia, allows us to address the issues of colonialism, underdevelopment and cultural mitigation of climate change, among other topics. The Caribbean is thus central to an array of current debates considering the distinction between migration and colonization, demographic effectives of colonized indigenous groups, their impact on the genetic make-up of living peoples, and the role of ideology and cosmology in the appropriation of power and development of segmented societies. Recent years have seen new insights into the establishment and maintenance of networks of interaction in the archipelago, as well as deeper understanding of the spread of cultigens (bean, maize, zamia, sweet potatoes) and domesticated animals (dogs, and maybe hutia) in the region. The symposium examines early human impact on the environment, evidence of low level food production and agriculture, migrations, and networks of interaction in the Caribbean and the adjacent continental regions.
Keywords: Caribbean archaeology, early migrations, seascape, contact and exchange
Island Worlds Writ Large and Small: Archaeologies of Island Melanesia
Organiser(s): James L. Flexner (The Australian National University / Australia), Mathieu Leclerc (The Australian National University / Australia), Edson Willie (Vanuatu Cultural Centre / Vanuatu) and Lawrence Kiko (Solomon Islands National Museum)
Island Melanesia was the location of some of humanity’s first major sea voyages in the Pleistocene, the initial expansion of the Lapita culture into remote Oceania, Holocene adaptations to highly varied island environments and development of regional cultural identities, evolution of complex societies, and indigenous resilience and transformation in a later era of globalization driven largely by European colonialism. Archaeological knowledge of the region, which includes Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and Fiji, has expanded by leaps and bounds over the past two decades. This session synthesizes the latest results from archaeological research in Island Melanesia, as well as exploring both the relevance of the region to world archaeology, and the significance of archaeology for contemporary island communities.
Potential topics include, but are not limited to: Pleistocene colonization and adaptation; Lapita expansion and interactions; Complex societies in Melanesia; Living and changing with varied island environments; Technologies of stone, shell, and ceramic; Long and shorter-distance voyaging, trade, and exchange; European colonialism and Melanesian resilience in the modern era; Working with island communities in the present; Archaeological conservation and cultural heritage management in a developing region; Comparisons of Melanesia and other insular world regions. Greetings, a quick note on the conference organisers.
Keywords: Melanesia, island archaeology, indigenous archaeology
South American archaeology’s contributions to World Archaeological Approaches
Organiser(s): Mariano Bonomo (Universidad Nacional de La Plata / Argentina), Sonia Archila (Universidad de los Andes / Colombia) and Christine Hastorf (University of California-Berkeley / USA)
Particularities of South American archaeological record have constantly challenged global interpretations about humankind’s past. We would like to discuss in this session how particular cases of South American archaeology have contributed to the understanding of a global and basic issue: human relations with their environments and landscapes in the past. We have being learning that models proposed for other parts of the world to explain human occupation of the landscape, use of biota and minerals, domestication of plants and animals, cannot be uncritically projected into the South American past. Undoubtedly, this orientation has been inspired by numerous contemporary indigenous people whose daily activities and cosmologies expand our interpretative horizon concerning the complexities of the relationship between nature and culture, let alone that separation. We encourage paper submissions of local/regional study cases discussing societies that do not fit the traditional model constructions, but have unique cultural landscapes and histories across South America; including subsistence practices and social strategies for the use and management of plants, animals and minerals, material culture and its relation to the representation of natural world (e.g. rock art, pottery, stone, and metal artefacts). The goal is to illustrate South American contributions to archaeological interpretation beyond South America.
Keywords: Natural resources, landscape, South America
IHOPE session on Water Management and Food Security
Organiser(s): Paul Sinclair (Uppsala University / Sweden), Paul Lane (Uppsala University / Sweden), Innocent Pikirayi (University of Pretoria / South Africa) and Angus Graham (Uppsala University / Sweden)
In this IHOPE session researchers, using Historical Ecology,
Environmental Humanities and Future Studies provide examples from
Europe to Southern Africa of deep time analyses of landscapes,
settlement systems and water relations to generate insights for
future scenarios. Rockström and Falkenmark (2015) point to a
doubling of population in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2050 with a
predicted total of 2 billion people or 25% of the world population.
The region is dependent on rural rain-fed agriculture and there is a
need to double agricultural production. Current global changes make
the regularity and amount of rain in the medium and long term
unpredictable. The very rapid urbanization with attendant concerns
of urban food security underline the urgency of the situation.
Despite the scope for intensification of standard agricultural
extension services, new approaches need to be taken which take human
agency past, present and future into account.
Water is not only good to drink it is also good to think (Strang
2014) and current theoretical insights will frame examples of past
water harvesting, storage, distribution and use from different
regions in Africa elsewhere and will be interrogated in terms of
material and immaterial potential contributions to meet present day
and future challenges.
IHOPE = Integrated History and Future of People on Earth.
Keywords: IHOPE, water management, food
Historical Ecology in Asian Archaeology
Organiser(s): Stephen Murphy (Asian Civilisations Museum / Singapore), D. Kyle Latinis (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies / Singapore) and Ea Darith (Angkor International Center for Research and Documentation / Cambodia)
Historical Ecology, although firmly established in other global regions, remains an emergent field in Asian archaeology. Historical ecology is an approach that allows us to evaluate diachronic interactions between society and environment. It recognizes that humans have intentionally or unintentionally modified and/or maintained their environments and ecologies over time. Impacts and changes occur at varying spatial and temporal scales. A multi-scalar temporal and geographical perspective allows archaeologists to analyse changes in land use and environment from localized areas and relatively limited timescales (e.g., a few generations in one settlement) to large distances and timescales (e.g., agricultural intensification, industrial resource extraction and urbanization). Some modifications have limited sustainability and are occasionally catastrophic. Others seem to have considerable longevity and resiliency.
The panel aims to explore the viability of Historical Ecology approaches for future research in Asian archaeology and its subsequent worldwide relevance. Theoretical and methodological frameworks as well as empirically based case studies will be discussed. Topics of particular interest are; species-genera changes; ecosystem conversions/transformations; wood fuel consumption, industry and urbanization. Papers that look at detrimental human activities on ecosystems such as deforestation, over exploitation of mineral resources, species extinction and so forth are also welcomed.
Keywords: species-genera changes; ecosystem conversions/transformations; society and environment
Maritime archaeological research activities in the Asia-Pacific region
Organiser(s): Jun Kimura (Tokai University / Japan), Bill Jeffery (University of Guam / USA) and Bobby Orillaneda (National Museum of the Philippines / Philippines)
Underwater Cultural Heritage research in the Asia-Pacific region is invariably linked to providing an understanding of past human behavior and activities related to the sea and freshwater, through research into human migration and settlement, historical maritime expeditions, seaborne trades, piracy, and naval warfare. The UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage 2001 is being used by the international community as a framework to implement relevant maritime archaeological study. This international agreement can help countries preserve and promote their unique cultural identity and while only a few countries, such as Cambodia and Iran from the Asia-Pacific region have ratified it so far, a number of countries are working toward this goal. The multi-regional perspective is vital in the pursuit of underwater cultural heritage study. The evidence of maritime activities and networks of the past is often inter- and trans- regional beyond present day national borders. An example can be found in the historical period, with the ‘Maritime Silk Road’ – trade between China, South East Asia, India, Middle East, Africa and Europe, which has been running for over 1500 years. The Maritime Silk Road is much broader than a Chinese construction, it involved many countries, people, ships, ports, and trade goods.
Similarly underwater cultural heritage in the Pacific highlight the region’s cultural cohesiveness, unique world-wide attributes, as well as its connections with the broader world, particularly from Asia. This session would welcome papers that can expand on these various aspects of the underwater cultural heritage in the Asia-Pacific region.
Keywords: maritime archaeology, Asia-Pacific, underwater cultural heritage
Patterns and Processes in the Transformation of Pacific Island Landscapes
Organiser(s): Toru Yamaguchi (Keio University / Japan) and Barry Rolett (University of Hawaii / USA)
Pacific Islands are ideally suited for scientific approaches to the temporal development of terrestrial and marine landscapes, because of their isolation and their limited surface areas. Landscapes can be investigated as the historical product of dynamic interactions among natural and human agencies. Archaeological science allows landscape transformation to be scrutinized in a diachronic framework that helps explain the dynamic nature of this process. Useful approaches include geoarchaeology, zooarchaeology and paleobotany. This symposium highlights Pacific Island case studies and methodological advances in three research areas: 1) Landscape reconstruction to understand the paleocoastal settings of archaeological sites; 2) Environmental studies to understand anthropogenic influence linked with and following the initial human settlement of previously uninhabited islands; 3) Patterns and processes in the acquisition and exchange of unevenly distributed resources such as high quality raw material for stone tools, but also including plants and animals.
Keywords: Pacific Islands, landscape archaeology, paleoenvironment
The Horse in the Steppes of Eurasia in the Bronze and Iron Ages: Archaeology, Iconography, Mythology
Organiser(s): Valeriu Sirbu (Museum of Braila ”Carol I” / Romania), Cristian Schuster (Institute of Archaeology Bucharest / Romania) and Diana Gergova (Institute of Archaeology Sofia / Bulgaria)
It is our intention to analyse the importance of the horse in the life of human communities, from several key perspectives.
The first perspective refers to the archaeological finds in: a) household contexts, which point to the role of the horse in the economic life of the societies; b) funerary contexts, as an expression of the horse’s importance to both fighting and hunting, but also a conveyance to the “afterlife”, and c) sanctuaries and cult places, showing its role to the religious beliefs and practices.
Another perspective refers to the figurative representations of the horse in the art of the ancient peoples, as a reflection of their beliefs, myths and legends as well as their artistic abilities. Special attention will be paid to specific manners of the representation of horse in the zoomorphic styles of the peoples of Eurasia.
The analysis of the various types of sources, from the vast area between the Pacific and the Atlantic, throughout a long period (3rd – 1st millennia BC), will outline both the common and the specific features of the beliefs and mentalities of the numerous peoples and different civilizations of Eurasia regarding this noble animal.
Keywords: horse, mythology, Eurasia
Shellmounds in evidence: culture, formation, and function
Organiser(s): Rita Scheel-Ybert (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro / Brazil), Mirjana Roksandic (University of Winnipeg / Canada) and Silvia Reis (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro / Brazil)
As a world-wide coastal phenomenon, shell mounds are landmark features with an important role in the landscape of archaeological groups. As purposefully built shell-matrix structures, they require substantial organization and planning, and play an important role in the social imaginary of local communities. Shell matrix sites in general, and shell mounds in particular show diversity of form and function that increases with every new discovery, often bringing more questions than answers. Despite a long history of archaeology of these sites, regional syntheses of shell mounds (and other shell matrix sites) are of varying breadth and depth, highly dependent on the state of research in individual areas of interest. By bringing together different regional syntheses, case studies and new methodological approaches, the session offers a comparative approach to understanding the local, regional and global diversity of shell mounds. While the emphasis of the session is on regional syntheses, we welcome papers on new methodologies and case studies that could have more general impact.
Keywords: shell mounds, formation process, regional synthesis, communities of practice, comparative perspective
Beads and Jade: Transnational Archaeology in Asia
Organiser(s): Yukishige Hirose (Osaka Prefectural Chikatsu-Asuka Museum / Japan), Xiaoli Qin (Center for Cultural Resource Studies, Kanazawa University / Japan), Yasuyuki Yoshida (Sainsbury Institute for the Study of Japanese Arts and Cultures / UK), Koiso Manabu (Kobe Yamate University / Japan) and Jamir Tiatoshki (Nagaland University / India)
This session aims to encourage transnational archaeological research across Asia through studies of beads of amber, glass, semi-precious stones such as jadeite, carnelian, etc., and jade. Since these artefacts have not only fascinated ancient people throughout Asia since the Neolithic Period, but also scholars across the globe, they provide excellent potential for comparative archaeology in Asia. Although cross-regional collaborative studies of beads and jade is increasing, the majority of the research is still inevitably restricted to local discourse, methodology, and theory in each modern nation, not helped by history and politics in Asia. The topics in this session will range from manufacturing techniques, provenance of raw material, and trade through to symbolic meanings of beads and jade. Through individual papers and discussion, we hope to establish a platform of comparative archaeology for this area of research.
Keywords: beads, jade, asia, transnational Archaeology, Cross-regional collaborative research.
Dynamics in the peripheries: Varying responses to Japanese state formation
Organiser(s): Kazuaki Yoshimura (Archaeological Institute of Kashihara, Nara Prefecture / Japan), Maria Shinoto (Heidelberg University / Germany) and Yuki Iwahashi (Kyushu University / Japan)
Peripheral societies can be understood as a single uniform entity in contrast to one central power. Traditional models for state formation in Japan propose that a central power steadily extended its influence to the northern and southern areas of the Japanese main islands, regions conceived as a uniform “periphery”. Rather than one homogenous block, however, these constitute a variety of societies with different responses and paces of transformation. While some regions selected to remain isolated, others adapted and integrated either actively or reluctantly. The variety of responses to the process of state formation in Japan provides a useful example for understanding choices and reactions of peripheral societies in other parts of the world where societies faced the increasing control of a central power. To understand the role of peripheral societies during the process of state formation, we will examine the diversity of processes in the regionally limited but meaningful context of Japan. This case study may the help develop hypotheses relevant for broader global comparisons.
Keywords: dynamics, peripheries, state formation, Japan
Early rice farming and civilization in East Asia: towards a productive integration of international and cross-disciplinary research agendas
Organiser(s): Leo Aoi Hosoya (Ochanomizu University / Japan), Dorian Fuller (University College London / UK), Hong Xu (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences / China) and Shin’ichi Nakamura (/)
With the increasing participation of Western archeologists in East Asia, new theories and methods have been introduced. While this recent research has provided new potentials and insights for East Asian archaeology, language barriers and different research and presentation styles may explain why previous research achievements by local archaeologists have not always been fully appreciated nor adequately integrated into the new research. This forum will use one of the core issues of East Asian archaeology– the relationship between early rice-farming and civilization — as a platform for discussions aimed at increasing meaningful dialogue aimed at improving future research outcomes. An open discussion will led by a panel consisting of Western, Chinese and Japanese experts. Some of the key questions include the following.
1) How can advanced archaeobiological techniques (e.g., stable isotope analyses) and classic artefact studies be combined in creative ways to improve understanding of early rice-farming civilizations?
2) How can the detailed artefact typologies constructed by East Asian archaeologists be used to improve social reconstructions?
3) What paths for synthesizing Eastern and Western views of early rice-farming civilization are most likely to succeed?
Through this open multicultural forum, we aim at to establish a solid basis for future constructive global collaboration for East Asian archaeology.
Keywords: Rice farming-based civilization, East Asian archaeology, multi-cultural discussion
World War II in the Pacific Theatre: Multicultural Archaeologies of Conflict
Organiser(s): Neil Price (University of Uppsala / Sweden) and Rick Knecht (Aberdeen University / UK)
World War II in the Pacific Theatre: Multicultural Archaeologies of Conflict [ Abstract ] The Second World War was arguably the most traumatic complex event in human history. Its
troubled legacies have left a global mark, but nowhere more so than in the Pacific, with today’s unresolved tensions between Japan, China, Korea and other former combatant nations. The island battlefields of the region formed a zone of cultural interaction and conflict for all
the peoples of the Pacific and many from outside.Both directly and thematically, causal links can be traced back from the War to the colonial contact period, and literally underlying the wartime landscapes (but often overlooked) are the earlier settlements and sacred sites of the indigenous islanders. The properly contextualised study of the conflict therefore involves a chronological range and complexity that extends from the 1500s to today. Themes of death and memory naturally take centre stage, perceived differently over time among the multicultural actors of the
Pacific. Using examples from across the region, this session presents a range of archaeological investigations that promote the preservation of the battlefields as places of reflection and commemoration, and the innovative role of archaeology as a medium of reconciliation.
Keywords: WWII Pacific, conflict archaeology, multicultural encounters
Archaeologies of the Asian diaspora
Organiser(s): Koji Ozawa (San Francisco State University / USA), Laura Ng (Stanford University / USA) and Kaori Akiyama (Graduate University of Advanced Studies / Japan)
During the late 19th and early 20th century, Asian migrants traveled to a diverse array of countries across the world, creating transnational communities. They constituted an important part of the labor force required by the global capitalist economy, with large groups immigrating to North America, Latin America, Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Scholarship that illuminates these communities has increased dramatically in recent decades with studies examining a variety of sites (ethnic enclaves, labor camps, confinement sites, etc.) and from different geographic contexts. We invite papers that will address theoretical frameworks to study the archaeology of Asian diasporas as well as case studies. This session highlights the need for comparative research from across the globe, focuses on transnational approaches in diaspora archaeology, and will provide much-needed insight into the wide-ranging nature of Asian migration.
Keywords: historical archaeology, Asian diaspora, transnationalism
Interactions between Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers and Neighbors in Asia
Organiser(s): Kazunobu Ikeya (National Museum of Ethnology / Japan) and Sakkarin Na Nan (Rajamangala University of Technology / Thailand)
This session draws together studies that examine how prehistoric hunter-gatherers established relationships with neighboring, farming groups, pastoral groups, fishing communities and urban dwellers. We specifically emphasize prehistoric and historic coexistence and conflict between hunter-gatherers and farmers (e.g., between Jomon and Yayoi, or Ainu and Japanese) in east Asia, northeast Asia, and southeast Asia regions. How can we interpret the relationship between hunters and farmers in the past from an archaeological point of view? The existence of such a relationship may be inferred from the presence of tools or the remains of animals and plants in archaeological deposits, from the particular distributions of archaeological sites, and from the reconstruction of prehistoric environments. But to make sense of these data it is necessary to have models that allow us to understand the past relationship between the two groups. One useful approach is through ethno-archaeological investigations that infer past relationships from those observable in the present. We may identify several different kinds of relationship models: such as exchange/trade relationships; consignment relationships and intermarriage relationships etc. In this session we verify the presence of one or other of these relationships by using archaeological and ethno-archaeological evidence.
Keywords: interaction, trade, exchange
Hunter-gatherer mobility and exchange during primary and secondary dispersals
Organiser(s): Luciano Prates (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Silvia Reis / France), James Steele (University College London / UK), Lucas Bueno ( Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina / Brasil), Silvia Reis (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro / Brazil), Noriko Seguchi (Kyushu University / Japan) and Anna Prentiss (University of Montana / USA )
Spatial dimensions of human cultural dynamics can be studied in many different contexts and at multiple scales. “Movement” is probably the most fundamental theoretical concept involved. This Session aims to provide a setting for reflecting on individual and group mobility, and on exchange between spatially distant groups, as drivers of cultural change in hunter-gatherer societies. We propose to focus specifically on the archaeology of hunter-gatherer mobility during primary dispersals into previously unoccupied lands (at local, regional and continental scales), and during secondary dispersals into already occupied lands (involving only hunter-gatherers, or involving forager-farmer interactions, but in each case implying cross-cultural interactions). How well do established models stand up as frameworks for explaining hunter-gatherer mobility and exchange during primary and secondary dispersals (transient explorer versus estate settler; forager versus collector; embedded versus direct procurement; local versus exotic resources; the ‘availability’ model of forager/farmer frontiers; etc.)? What new concepts are required? How easily can archaeologists distinguish between long-distance mobility and long-distance exchange, in explaining the presence of ‘exotic’ artifacts at a site? How well do classical ideas of fission-fusion band organization, of demes, and of territory explain the spatial scales of cultural similarity in the archaeological record?
Keywords: Hunter-gatherers; Mobility and exchange; dispersal processes
Recent Archaeological Research in Central Eurasia
Organiser(s): Shogo Kume (Tokyo Univresity of the Arts / Japan), Aida Abdykanova (American University of Central Asia / Kyrgyzstan), Toshio Hayashi (Soka University / Japan) and Shu Takahama (Tokyo National Museum / Japan)
Until recently, the development of ancient Central Eurasian cultures has largely been limited to a particular country, period, culture or issue. What is lacking is a clear image of Central Eurasian archaeology that integrates the entire region into a unit of analysis. Is there still a unity and validity to the concept of Central Eurasia as a significant concept for archaeological observations? If so, what is indigenous to Central Eurasia as a whole and how can we understand the regional characteristics into broader cultural interactions?
This session will consider whether there should be a common image of Central Eurasia archaeology in the academic sphere in the long term. Papers will discuss the significance from results of recent archaeological investigations and consider the potential of future archaeological research, especially given ongoing social, religious and political problems in the region. Comparative results from neighboring regions are also welcomed.
Keywords: Central Eurasia, Eurasian steppe, cultural interactions
The global impact and significance of major archaeological projects
Organiser(s): Simon Kaner (Sainsbury Institute for the Study of Japanese Arts and Cultures / UK), Koji Mizoguchi (Kyushu University /Japan) and Sam Nixon (Sainsbury Institute for the Study of Japanese Arts and Cultures / UK)
How can we provide new ways to assess the significance and global impact of major archaeological projects? How do major projects engage in a genuine dialogue with a wider World Archaeology? The holding of WAC in Japan provides a useful context for a discussion of large-scale archaeological projects and their international profile. For many years, Japanese archaeology has been characterised by very high numbers of large-scale excavations, many of which probably were of international significance, but very few came to the attention of international audiences, and even fewer involved international participation. This session investigates the continuing dialogue concerning the international impact of major archaeological projects from any given country, explores the significance of transnational participation in such projects, and raises issues in the dissemination of their findings for world archaeology. The session will comprise a series of presentations on major archaeological projects which have shaped the research landscape in recent years, and will consider how each contributes to the formulation of transnational research agendas. The session will include contributions about a selection of major British archaeological projects, marking the 30th anniversary of the inaugural conference of the World Archaeological Congress in Southampton in 1986, where delegates were taken to visit excavations at the famous Iron Age site of Maiden Castle. The session will also include comments by international discussants. Other contributions are invited from around the world.
Keywords: British archaeology, international significance, major research projects
The background of the introduction of the Kiln fired pottery in periphery areas
Organiser(s): Tomoko Nagatomo (Osaka-ohtani University / Japan) and Dae Youn Cho (Chonbuk National University / Korea)
Although the use of the pottery kiln in East Asia represents a significant innovation, little research has been devoted to the causes for the adoption of this new technology. Research has mainly focused on technical improvements and governmental control of products rather than considering broader functional and social roles of kiln fired pottery. Recent excavations and technical studies show that large vessels used for storage and transport of products were often made in early kilns. Using multiple archaeological and physiochemical approaches, this session will consider a range of viewpoints for why this new technology was developed.
Keywords: Kiln, Pottery, East Asia
Origins of Agricultural Practices on the Gangetic Plain in a Global Perspective
Organiser(s): Manoj Singh (University of Delhi / India) and Luiz Oosterbeek (Institute of Polytechnic, Tomar / Portugal)
The Gangetic plain, in the Himalayan foreland basin is one of the largest alluvial stretches in the world. The wide range of geomorphic features created a favorable environmental setting for early human occupation. Recent multidisciplinary research has enriched our knowledge about Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers in this region. The presence of wild and domesticated varieties of rice species and other cultivated crops at several excavated sites signifies the importance of this area regarding the origin and development of agriculture. The purpose of this session is to discuss the processes concerning the beginnings of agricultural practices in the Gangetic plain and adjoining regions and to situate these in a global perspective of agricultural origins. Comparative research on domestication and early agriculture from other areas is also welcome.
Keywords: Gangetic plain, domestication, agriculture, Mesolithic, Neolithic
Environmental History and the Comparison of Pan-Pacific Societies
Organiser(s): Yoshinori Yasuda (Ritsumeikan University / Japan) and Guodong Li (Guizhou University / China)
This workshop will discuss environmental history in relation to the rise and fall of Pan-Pacific societies which have similar cosmologies. Our environmental data comes from Japanese studies of laminated sediments which have reconstructed Pan-Pacific environmental history on a year-by-year basis. The Yangtze River societies were first noticed by Japanese authorities who described it as being based on rice-cultivating and fishing. In recent decades we have found traditional cultures in some Pan-Pacific regions that resemble the Yangze River groups. For instance, we argue that the Muisca society developed from 1000 AD to 1538 AD in the area of Bogota, Colombia, South America and Maori society in New Zealand are similar.
We would welcome any paper about the cultural and spiritual similarities between the Yangtze River societies and other Pan-Pacific societies.
Keywords: Yangtze River Civilization, Rice Cultivation, China
New Perspectives of Young Scientists on Latin-American Archaeology in a Globalized World
Organiser(s): Daniel Dante SAUCEDO SEGAMI (National Museum of Ethnology / Japan) and Akira Ichikawa (Nagoya University / Japan)
Cultural and Archaeological diversity in Latin-America make this region an ideal space to develop new theoretical and methodological paradigms for the archaeological discipline. Because of this characteristic, the interest on Latin-American archaeology has increased in late years and the number of researchers has also growth. The characteristics of a globalized world (new technologies, social media, mobilization of researchers, etc.) are influencing a new generation of scientists that share methodologies and results in a global environment, transforming archaeological research in a dynamic and transdisciplinary field. Nevertheless, comparison between different countries in this region and from other regions is quite low. In order to overcome geographical borders in archaeological research, we welcome presentations related to this region focused on general topics like social differentiation, the role of elites and ideology, the use and adaptation to the environment, and public engagement in archaeology. We expect from this session a discussion about study cases from a global perspective, as well as the possibility to share ideas and methodologies by building an interdisciplinary network between participants.
Keywords: Latin-America, Young Scientists, New Perspectives
Sharing Research on Angkor, Cambodia
Organiser(s): Susumu Morimoto (Nara National Research Institue for Cultural Properties / Japan) and Tin Tina (Apsara / Cambodia)
In the Angkor area many institutions from several countries have been involved in research, conservation and restoration works over many years. Institutions produce and publish results, but they also preserve many fundamental drawings, photos, etc. that would benefit future studies. It has previously been difficult to share these types of essential information inter-Institutionally. This Workshop will discuss how to make an inventory of research outputs and to digitize them for effective use by others. Examples of useful databases will be presented. To achieve inter-institutional cooperative relationships is useful not only for future research but also for the long term conservation of the documents.
Keywords: Information Sharing Angkor
Two other archaeological narratives: Hokkaido and Ryukyus
Organiser(s): Hirofumi Kato (Hokkaido University / Japan) and Hiroto Takayama (Kagoshima University / Japan)
Discussions of the prehistory of Japan usually focus on the main islands: Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. It was almost thirty years ago the late Tsuyoshi Fujimoto published a manuscript named “Two other Japanese cultures: North (Hokkaido) and Southern Islands (Ryukyus)” in which he stressed the presence of these different prehistoric cultures in prehistoric Japan. In surveying the prehistory of Hokkaido and the Southern Islands, this session revisits these issues and presents new data especially for conference participants from outside Japan. Beginning with Ryukyu, it will introduce recent important findings from the Paleolithic sites, discuss socio-cultural evolution during the Shellmidden period and, finally, review evidence concerning the emergence of food production and intensive exchange during the Gusuku period. Hokkaido is well known as the original land for the Ainu, indigenous peoples in Northern Japan, but this island also played a role as the cultural crossroad between Northeast Asia and the Japanese archipelago. Papers will describe the original characteristics of the prehistoric period. The session will also present physical anthropological data concerning the Hokkaido and Ryukyu populations.
Keywords: Ainu, Ryukyu, islands